Connections are made easy using the attachments on your connecting wires. Connecting wires come in male and female wires
All connections are made by gently pushing the cable unto the leads on the component you want to connect to
Build Your First Circuit
Your first circuit will be a very simple circuit. It will include a dry cell, a buzzer and connecting wires.
For every circuit there is a circuit diagram! A circuit diagram is a representation of the circuit, using symbols for components and lines as connecting wires.
You can find the circuit symbol for each component is printed on it.
A diode is a component that allows current to flow in only one direction. If a diode is connected such that current flows through, it is forward-biased, otherwise, it is reverse biased.
- Add another dry cell to increase the loudness of the buzzer
- Add a diode to the circuit Flip the diode and observe the buzzer
A fun simple exercise
By observing the direction of the diode, in what direction does current flow?
Indicate with an arrow, the direction of flow of current
We see a diode that emits light and learn about a new component using the scientific process!
The Light Emitting Diode (LED) is a diode that emits light. Note the direction on the component
Use the symbol to find this mystery component, we will learn about it in the next chapter
The Scientific Process
In other to find the function of our unknown component, we will apply the
Hypothesis / Question
What is the function of the mystery component
There are two of the mystery component in the science set. Replace the one in the previous circuit with a higher one and observe the change in the LED. Switch them again
Record your observation. What do you see is the difference between the two components and what is the effect they have
A resistor limits the flow of current but some materials do not allow current to flow through at all! Conductors allow current to flow through and non-conductor do not (as illustrated below).
An example of a conduction is the wires in the science set
You should realize that the mystery component resists the flow of current. It is called a resistor. The higher the resistance, the lower the current, as shown above,
With adult supervision use the components below to build a simple device to
test whether or not household items are conductors or not.
Let’s use what we know about conductors and non-conductors to build a switch in order to open and close our circuits without having to disconnect wires
A switch only has two states. Closed, here it allows current to flow through or open when current does not flow through.
Lets add our switch to the last LED circuit. We should be able to switch the LED on and off by opening or closing the switch
Developing your problem-solving skills
Mr Antepem likes to spend his time in his garden. Two local burglars want to take that opportunity to steal from him.
Can you use what you’ve learned so far to create a device to alert Mr Antepem when the burglars try to enter his house?
Remember the buzzer circuit? This could produce sound to alert Mr. Antepem.
From our lesson on conductors, we could use the different materials as a trigger to close and open the buzzer circuit
We have also discussed how to make the buzzer louder with more batteries
When designing a solution to a problem, you often have to rely on existing knowledge.
Consider where to place your device. For example, doors, window, or even doormats. Consider the points of entry and how the burglars will interact with them